Main Article Content
Kearney, P.M., Whelton, M., Reynolds, K., Muntner, P., Whelton, P.K. & He, J. (2005). Global burden of hypertension: analysis of worldwide data. Lancet 365 (9455) 217-223.
Fields, L.E., Burt, V.L., Cutler, J.A., Hughes, J., Roccella, E.J. & Sorlie, P. (2004). The burden of adult hypertension in the United States 1999 –2000: a rising tide. Hypertension 44, 398–404.
Fryar, C.D., Hirsch, R., Eberhardt, M.S., Yoon, S.S. & Wright, J.D. (2010). Hypertension, high serum total cholesterol, and diabetes: racial and ethnic prevalence differences in U.S. adults, 1999–2006. NCHS Data Brief 36 April 2010.
World Health Organization. (2011). www.who.int. Web 19 November 2011.
Chobanian, A.V., Bakris, G.L., Black, H.R., Cushman, W.C., Green, L.A., Izzo, J.L. Jr., Jones, D.W., Materson, B.J., Oparil, S., Wright, J.T. Jr., Roccella, E.J. & Joint National Committee on Prevention, Detection, Evaluation, and Treatment of High Blood Pressure, National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute, National High Blood Pressure Education Program Coordinating Committee. (2003). Seventh report of the Joint National Committee on Prevention, Detection, Evaluation and Treatment of High Blood Pressure. Hypertension 42, 1206–1252.
Glasser, S.P., Judd, S., Basile, J., Lackland, D., Halanych, J., Cushman, M., Prineas, R., Howard, V. & Howard, G. (2011). Prehypertension, racial prevalence and its association with risk factors: Analysis of the REasons for Geographic And Racial Differences in Stroke (REGARDS) study. American Journal of Hypertension 24 (2) 194-199.
Kramer, H., Han, C., Post, W., Goff, D., Diez-Roux, A., Cooper, R., Jinagouda, S. & Shea, S. (2004). Racial/ethnic differences in hypertension and hypertension treatment and control in the multi-ethnic study of atherosclerosis (MESA). American Journal of Hypertension 17 (10) 963-970.
Pleis, J.R., Ward, B.W. & Lucas, J.W. (2010). Summary health statistics for U.S. adults: National Health Interview Survey, 2009. Vital and Health Statistics 10 (249). Available at: http://www.cdc.gov/nchs/data/series/sr_10/sr10_249.pdf. Accessed November 19, 2011.
Kressin, N.R., Orner, M.B., Manze, M., Glickman, M.E. & Berlowitz, D. (2010). Understanding contributors to racial disparities in blood pressure control. Circulation: Cardiovascular Quality and Outcomes 3 (2) 173-180.
Howard, G., Prineas, R., Moy, C., Cushman, M., Kellum, M., Temple, E., Graham, A. & Howard, V. (2006). Racial and geographic differences in awareness, treatment, and control of hypertension: the Reasons for Geographic and Racial Differences in Stroke Study. Stroke 37, 1171–1178
Bosworth, H.B., Dudley, T., Olsen, M.K., Voils, C.I., Powers, B., Goldstein, M.K. & Oddone, E.Z. (2006). Racial differences in blood pressure control: potential explanatory factors. American Journal of Medicine 119 (1) 70 e9-15.
LaVeist, T. (2005). Minority Populations and Health: An Introduction to Health Disparities in the United States. San Francisco: Josey-Bass.
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2009). Prevalence and trends data. In: Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System Data. Atlanta, Ga: US Department of Health and Human Services, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Available at: http://apps.nccd.cdc.gov/brfss/index.asp. Accessed November 19, 2011.
Fiscella, K. & Holt, K. (2008). Racial disparity in hypertension control: tallying the death toll. Annals of Family Medicine. 6 (6) 497-502.
Wong, M.D., Shapiro, M.F., Boscardin, W.J. & Ettner, S.L. (2002). Contribution of major diseases to disparities in mortality. New England Journal of Medicine 347 (20) 1585-1592.
Gu, Q., Burt, V.L., Paulose-Ram, R. & Dillon, C.F. (2008). Gender differences in hypertension treatment, drug utilization patterns, and blood pressure control among US adults with hypertension: data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 1999-2004. American Journal of Hypertension. 21 (7) 789-798.
Federal Interagency Forum on Aging-Related Statistics. (2010). Older Americans 2010 Key Indicators of Well-Being: Federal Interagency Forum on Aging-Related Statistics. Washington, DC: US Government Printing Office. Available at: http://www.agingstats.gov. Accessed November 19, 2011.
National Center for Health Statistics. (2010). Health, United States, 2009: With Special Feature on Medical Technology. Hyattsville, Md: National Center for Health Statistics. Available at: http://www.cdc.gov/nchs/data/hus/hus09.pdf. Accessed Novmeber 19, 2011.
Crescioni, M., Gorina, Y., Bilheimer, L. & Gillum, R. (2010). Trends in health status and health care use among older men. National Health Statistics Reports, No. 24. Hyattsville, Md: National Center for Health Statistics.
King, K.E., Morenoff, J.D. & House, J.S. (2011). Neighborhood context and social disparities in cumulative biological risk factors. Psychosomatic Medicine 73 (7) 572-579.
Waidmann, T.A. & Rajan, S. (2000). Race and ethnic disparities in health care access and utilization: an examination of state variation. Medical Care Research & Review 57 (Supplement 1) 55-84.
Mainous, A.G. 3rd., King, D.E., Garr, D.R. & Pearson, W.S. (2004). Race, rural residence, and control of diabetes and hypertension. Annals of Family Medicine 2 (6) 563-568.
Ellis, C., Grubaugh, A.L. & Egede, L.E. (2010). The effect of minority status and rural residence on actions to control high blood pressure in the U.S. Public Health Reports 125 (6) 801-809.
Mujahid, M.S., Diez-Roux, A.V., Cooper, R.C., Shea, S. & Williams, D.R. (2011). Neighborhood stressors and race/ethnic differences in hypertension prevalence (the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis). American Journal of Hypertension 24 (2) 187-193.
Lukoschek, P. (2003). African Americans' beliefs and attitudes regarding hypertension and its treatment: a qualitative study. Journal of Health Care for the Poor and Underserved 14 (4) 566-587.
Lopez-Ruiz, A., Sartori-Valinotti, J., Yanes, L.L., Iliescu, R. & Reckelhoff , JjF. (2008). Sex differences in control of blood pressure: role of oxidative stress in hypertension in females. American Journal of Physiology Heart and Circulatory Physiology 295, H466-474.
Merchant, J., Coussens, C. & Gibert, D., eds. (2006). Rebuilding the Unity of Health and the Environment in Rural America. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press.
Klimentidis, Y.C., Dulin-Keita, A., Casazza, K., Willig, A.L., Allison, D.B. & Fernandez, J.R. (2012). Genetic admixture, social-behavioural factors and body composition are associated with blood pressure differently by racial-ethnic group among children. Journal of Human Hypertension 26 (2) 98-107.
Miles, A. & Mezzich, J.E. (2011). The care of the patient and the soul of the clinic: person-centered medicine as an emergent model of modern clinical practice. International Journal of Person Centered Medicine 1 (2) 207-222.
Hicken, M., Gragg, R. & Hu, H. (2011). How cumulative risks warrant a shift in our approach to racial health disparities: the case of lead, stress, and hypertension. Health Affairs (Millwood) 30,1895-1901.
Kressin, N.R., Wang, F., Long, J., Bokhour, B.G., Orner, M.B., Rothendler, J., Clark, C., Reddy, S., Kozak, W., Kroupa, L.P. & Berlowitz, D.R. (2007). Hypertensive patients' race, health beliefs, process of care, and medication adherence. Journal of General Internal Medicine 22 (6) 768-774.
Glasser, S.P., Judd, S., Basile, J., Lackland, D., Halanych, J., Cushman, M., Prineas, R., Howard, V. & Howard. G. (2011). Prehypertension, racial prevalence and its association with risk factors: Analysis of the REeasons for Geographic And Racial Differences in Stroke (REGARDS) study. American Journal of Hypertension 24 (2) 194-199.
Miles, A. & Mezzich, J.E. (2012). Person-centered medicine: addressing chronic illness and promoting future health. International Journal of Person Centered Medicine 2 (2) 149-152.