Development of Instruments and Evaluative Procedures on Contributors to Illness and Health


  • C. Robert Cloninger Sansone Family Center for Well-Being at Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, MO, USA
  • Kevin M. Cloninger Anthropedia Foundation



Instruments available for a person-centered assessment of the causes of well-being and ill-being are described. Monitoring at the level of symptoms of illness and past lifestyle behavior has failed to promote change in well-being in a strong and consistent way.  Therefore, we illustrate a way of assessing the interactions among multiple aspects of the causes of well-being.  For example, at least three distinct aspects of human well-being are known to interact synergistically to promote health – neurobiological plasticity, self-regulatory functioning and virtue. The neglect of any one of the ternary aspects of well-being impedes understanding and treatment of the whole person.  Each aspect can be reliably measured using quantitative and qualitative techniques to facilitate treatment planning and analysis of their interactions as a complex adaptive system, although further work is needed to clarify the content and structure of each aspect. 

Author Biographies

C. Robert Cloninger, Sansone Family Center for Well-Being at Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, MO, USA

Prof Cloninger is Wallace and Lucille Renard Professor of Psychiatry, Professor of Psychology and Genetics, and Director of the Sansone Family Center for Well-Being at Washington University School of Medicine in St. Louis. He is also Scientific Director of the Anthropedia Institute Dr. Cloninger received his B.A. with High Honors and Special Honors in Philosophy, Psychology, and Anthropology from the University of Texas at Austin, 1966.  He received his M.D. from Washington University in 1970 and an Honorary Doctorate from the University of Umea, Sweden in 1983.  He has published 10 books and more than 400 articles in psychiatry, psychology, and genetics.   His recent books include the Origins of Cooperation and Altruism by Springer, Feeling Good: The Science of Well-Being by Oxford University Press, and Personality and Psychopathology by American Psychiatric Press.  Among his many awards, Dr. Cloninger has received the American Psychiatric Association’s Adolf Meyer Award (1993) and Judd Marmor Award (2009), and lifetime achievement awards from the American Society of Addiction Medicine (2000) and the International Society of Psychiatric Genetics (2003).  He is a Distinguished Life Fellow of the APA, a fellow of the American Academy for the Advancement of Science, and a member of the Institute of Medicine of the National Academy of Sciences.  The Institute of Scientific Information ranks him among the most highly cited psychiatrists and psychologists in the world. His personality inventories have been used in more than 4000 peer-reviewed publications.

Kevin M. Cloninger, Anthropedia Foundation

President, Anthropedia Foundation, Washington, Missouri, USA


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Third Geneva Conference on Person-centered Medicine: Person-centered Clinical Care Procedures