Open Access Open Access  Restricted Access Subscription or Fee Access

Staff wellbeing predicting positive attitudes towards mental health recovery

Lindsay Oades, Rebecca Walker, Naomi Fisher


Rationale As a result of recent changes in mental health ideology from illness-based models to consumer driven, person-centered recovery models, many organizations and mental health staff  have been required to adopt new work practices and procedures. Evidence suggests, however, that this transition has been a more difficult process than anticipated and as a result, mental health consumers are still not receiving adequate  services provision consistent with recovery ideology. Past research has indicated staff attitudes as a possible barrier to successful adoption of new practices and that one factor impacting upon these attitudes is staff wellbeing.

Aims and objectives This research is an exploratory investigation aimed at determining if a relationship exists between various measures of wellbeing and staff attitudes to recovery and which of the wellbeing measures are most useful for predicting positive recovery attitudes among mental health staff.

Method A total of one hundred and thirty service staff from four different mental health services completed six self-report measures of wellbeing and one of recovery attitudes. Cross-sectional correlation and regression analysis was used to explore the relationship between wellbeing and attitude.

Results As predicted, results showed that intrinsic job satisfaction, psychological wellbeing and work hope were all positively related to recovery attitudes whilst burn out and intention to leave were both negatively related. Work hope and burnout measures together provided the most accurate prediction of recovery attitudes. 

Conclusion These findings indicate that addressing issues related to staff wellbeing will be important if present and future recovery oriented staff training is to be optimally transferred into practice.

Full Text:



. Anthony, W. A. (2000). A recovery-oriented services system: Setting some level standards. Psychiatric Rehabilitation Journal 24, 159-168.

. Slade, M., Amering, M. & Oades, L. (2008). Recovery: an international perspective Epidemiologia e Psichiatria Sociale 17, 128-137.

. Oades, L. G., Crowe T. P. & Ngyuen, M. (2009). Leadership coaching transforming mental health systems from the inside out: The Collaborative Recovery Model as person-centred strengths based coaching psychology. International Coaching Psychology Review 4, 25-36.

. Lysaker, P. & Buck, K. (2006). Moving toward recovery within clients' personal narratives: Directions for a recovery-focused therapy. Journal of Psychosocial Nursing & Mental Health Services 44, 28-35.

. Slade, M. (2009). The contribution of mental health services to recovery. Journal of Mental Health 18, 367-371.

. Turton, P., Wright, C., White, S., Killaspy, H. & the DEMoBinc Group. (2010). Promoting recovery in long-term institutional mental health care: An international delphi study. Psychiatric Services 61, 293-299.

. Sowers, W. (2005). Transforming systems of care: The American Association of Community Psychiatrists guidelines for recovery oriented services. Community Mental Health Journal 41, 757-774.

. Australian Health Ministers. (2009). Fourth National Mental Health Plan— An agenda for collaborative government action in mental health 2009–2014. Australian Government: Canberra.

. Oades, L. G., Deane, F. P., Crowe, T. P., Lambert. W. G., Lloyd, C. & Kavanagh, D. (2005). Collaborative recovery: An integrative model for working with individuals that experience chronic or recurring mental illness. Australasian Psychiatry 13, 279-284.

. Crowe, T. P., Deane, F. P., Oades L. G., Caputi, P. & Morland, K. G. (2006). Effectiveness of a collaborative recovery training program in Australia in promoting positive views about recovery. Psychiatric Services 57, 1497-1500.

. Deane, F. P., Crowe, T. P., King, R., Kavanagh, D. J. & Oades, L. G. (2006). Challenges in implementing evidence-based practice into mental health services. Australian Health Review 30, 305-309.

. Uppal, S., Oades, L. G., Crowe, T. P. & Deane, F. P. (2010). Barriers to transfer of collaborative recovery training into Australian mental health services: implications for the development of evidence-based services. Journal of Evaluation in Clinical Practice 16, 451-455.

. Marshall, S. (2008). Mental health consumers’ evaluation of recovery-oriented service provision. University of Wollongong Thesis Collection. Retrieved from:

. Fadden, G. (1997). Implementation of family interventions in routine clinical practice following staff training programmes: a major cause for concern. Journal of Mental Health 6, 599–612.

. Rickwood, D. (2004). Recovery in Australia: Slowly but surely. Australian e-Journal for the Advancement of Mental Health 3, 1–3.

. Corrigan, P.W., Williams, O. B., McCracken, S.G., Kommana, S., Edwards, M. & Brunner, J. (1998). Staff attitudes that impede the implementation of behavioral treatment programs. Behavior Modification 22, 548-562.

. Salgado, J. D., Deane, F. P., Crowe, T. P. & Oades, L. G. (2010). Hope and improvements in mental health service providers’ recovery attitudes following training. Journal of Mental Health 19, 243-248.

. Baptiste, N. R. (2008). Tightening the link between employee wellbeing at work and performance: A new dimension for HRM. Management Decisions 46, 284-309.

. Corrigan, P. W., Holmes, P. E. & Luchins, D. (1995). Burnout and collegial support in state psychiatric hospital staff. Journal of Clinical Psychology 51, 703-710.

. Corrigan, P. W., Kwartarini, W. Y. & Pramana, W. (1992). Staff perceptions of barriers to behavior therapy in a psychiatric hospital. Behavior Modification 16, 132–144.

. Grant, A. M. & Campbell, E. M. (2007). Doing good, doing harm, being well and burning out: The interactions of perceived prosocial and antisocial impact in service work. Journal of Occupational and Organizational Psychology 80, 665-691.

. Maslach, C. (2003). Job burnout: New directions in research and intervention. Current Directions in Psychological Science 12, 189-192.

. Moore, K. A. & Cooper, C. L., (1996). Stress in mental health professionals: A theoretical overview. International Journal of Social Psychiatry 42, 82-89.

. Zapf, D. (2002). Emotion work and psychological well-being: A review of the literature and some conceptual considerations. Human Resource Management Review 12, 237-268.

. Corrigan, P. W., Lickey, S., Diwan, S. G., Oliver, K., Backs, A., Rashid, F. et al. (2001). Organisational Correlates to Staff Attitudes about Behavioural Programs. Behaviour Change 18, 114-123.

. Rossberg, J. I., Melle, I., Opjordsmoen, S. and Friis, S. (2008). The relationship between staff members’ working conditions and patients’ perceptions of the treatment environment. International Journal of Social Psychiatry 54, 437-446.

. Deane, F. Ciarrochi, J. & Oades, L.G. (2010). Personal communication.

. Warr, P., Cook, J. and Wall, T. (1979). Scales for the measurement of some work attitudes and aspects of psychological well-being. Journal of Occupational Psychology 52, 129-148.

. Kelloway, E. & Barling, J. (1993) Members' Participation in Local Union Activities: Measurement, prediction, and replication. Journal of Applied Psychology 78, 262–279.

. Ryff, C.D. & Keyes, C. L. M. (1995). The structure of psychological wellbeing revisited. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 69, 719-727.

. Maslcah, C. & Jackson, S. E. (1981). The measurement of experienced burnout. Journal of Occupational Behaviour 2, 99-113.

. Goldberg, D. P. (1972). The detection of psychiatric illness by questionnaire. Oxford, England: Oxford University Press.

. Hardy, G.E., Shapiro, D.A., Haynes, C.E. & Rick, J.E. (1999). Validation of the General Health Questionnaire-12 using a sample of employees from England's health care services. Psychological Assessment 11, 159-165.

. Wayne, S. J., Shore, L. M. & Liden, R. C. (1997). Perceived organizational support and leader-member exchange: A social exchange perspective. Academy of Management Journal 40, 82–111.

. Villanueva, D. & Djurkovic, N. (2009). Occupational Stress and Intention to Leave Among Employees in Small and Medium Enterprises. International Journal of Stress Management 16, 124-137.

. Snyder, C. R. (2000). Handbook of hope: Theory, measures, and applications. San Diego, CA: Academic Press.

. Snyder, C. R. (2002). Hope theory: rainbows in the mind. Psychological Inquiry 13, 249-275.

. Snyder, C.R., Harris, C., Anderson, J.R., Holleran, S.A., Irving, L.M., Sigmon, S.T., Yoshinobu, L., Gibb, J., Langelle, C. & Harney, P. (1991). The will and the ways: development and validation of an individual differences measure of hope. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 60, 570–585.

. Allan, P. & Bennett, K. (2008). SPSS for the Health and Behavioural Sciences. Victoria: Thompson Learning.

. Bovier, P. A., Arigoni, F., Schneider, M. & Gallacchi, M. B. (2009). Relationships between work satisfaction, emotional exhaustion and mental health among Swiss primary care physicians. European Journal of Public Health 19, 611-617.

. Maslach, C., Jackson, S. & Leiter, M. (1996). Maslach Burnout Inventory Manual. 3rd ed. Palo Alto (CA): Consulting Psychologist Press.

. Maslach, C. & Jackson, S.E. (1984). Burnout in organizational settings. Applied Social Psychology Annual 5, 133-153.

. Jacobsen, N. & Greenley, D. (2001). What is recovery? A conceptual model and explication. Psychiatric Services 52, 482-485.

. Botbol, M., Alanet, Y.O., Tosevski, D.L. & Schmolke, M. (2011). Psychological perspectives on psychiatry for the person. International Journal of Person Centered Medicine 1, 134-136.

. Buetow, S. (2011). Person-centred care: bridging current models of the clinician-patient relationship. International Journal of Person Centered Medicine 1, 196-203



  • There are currently no refbacks.